Discovering the World of LEDs

26 June 2024 | Published In BLOG

By amira

What is LED?

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a tiny, electronic semiconductor that converts electric
energy into visible light. The chemical compound used within an LED determines its
colour, brightness and power efficiency. Unlike incandescent lamps, LEDs have no
filaments that can burn out or fail.

LEDs come in two different forms

Manufacturers use several types of LEDs to construct digital displays. The two most common are Through-Hole LEDs and Surface Mount Device (SMD) LEDs, also known as Surface Mount Technology (SMT). Each type has its respective advantages that make it preferable for different applications.

Surface Mount LEDs

Surface Mount Devices, or SMD for short, refers to the LED lead frame mounting method. LEDs are mounted to the surface of the circuit board. The SMD contains red, green and blue die.

SMD LEDs

The total light emitted isn't concentrated in a focused area since SMD LEDs do not have directional reflector cups. Instead light disperses evenly across both horizontal and vertical angles, providing wider viewing angles. This makes SMD LEDs an excellent choice for most indoor applications as well as some tighter-pitch outdoor applications.

Benefits of SMD:

  • Outstanding colour blending at short viewing distance
  • No colour shift at extreme angles
  • Wide viewing angle

Through-Hole LEDs

Through-hole LEDs are mounted with leads protruding through the circuit board and appear to stand taller. Each LED is a single-color die of either red, green or blue.

Through-Hole LEDs

Through-hole LEDs use a reflector cup and an epoxy lens package. This combination as well as the type of die used, plays a role in determining the elliptical viewing cone produced. A through-hole LED's reflector cup focuses the light emitted by the die into a specific viewing area.

Benefits of Through-Hole:

  • Optimized for moderate to longer viewing distance
  • Louvers deflect sunlight for higher contrast
  • Black matte finish reduces reflection
  • Brighter than SMD LEDs

What is a  MODULE?

LED modules are made up of parts that form the building blocks of LED displays. Rows of modules line together to arrange the LEDs in different variations depending on the requirements.

What is a  PIXEL?

DIFFERENT TYPES OF PIXELS

Pixels, short for picture elements, are points of light that illuminate to form visuals. A pixel can be made up of a single LED, multiple LEDs of the same colour or multiple LEDs of different colours. They are the smallest elements of the electronic display system that can be individually controlled and turned off or on at various brightness levels.

Pixel Pitch & Resolution

Pixel pitch influences the resolution of the LED display screen. More pixels placed together means higher resolution. High resolution means the image will be clear to viewers even when viewed from proximity. We will help you to balance the cost as well as the perfect pixel pitch for your installation, to ensure the best fit for your viewing experience as well as your budget.

Pixel Pitch in a nutshell

Pixel pitch is essential for implementing successful digital signage programs because it influences the resolution of the display screen. More pixels placed together means higher resolution. If pixels are set further apart, say, in a P16 outdoor LED display, the resolution will be lower. High resolution means the image will be clear to viewers even when viewed from proximity. Lower resolution means large LED display panels may look great from a distance, but if you move closer to them, they will become uncomfortable to view.

01 Pixels are the smallest units on a digital board.

02 Each pixel is made up of a group of 3 light emitting diodes (LED) red, green and blue.

03 Pixel pitch refers to the distance between two pixels on an LED screen.

04 Lower the pixel pitch, the higher the resolution.

05 Higher the pixel pitch, the lower the resolution.

How does pixel pitch affect
minimum viewing distances?

Viewing distances are calculated based on the display type and the distance from the display. Each display will have a minimum and a maximum viewing distance that may vary based on application and intended use.

Selecting the right pixel pitch is important because it influences the resolution of the display screen. High resolution means the image will be clear to viewers even when viewed from proximity. Lower resolution means large LED display panels may look great from a distance, but if you move closer to them, they will become uncomfortable to view.